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Voyage charter

Voyage charter

Posted on 2013-02-15 02:04:47

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Source: voyage charter party, also known as Cheng rental contract is agreed between the ports of the lessor to provide the ship or part of the space flight, the carrier agreed goods, and by the lessee to pay the agreed freight. Voyage charter party contracts either a single voyage, consecutive voyage contracts can be. Voyage charter party entered into, the general is to transport bulk goods, or because the cargo liner route can not meet the need. Lessee also may be to sublet. In a voyage charter, the freight carriage of goods by the terms of the number and range independent of time used, the lessor assumes the risk of time. Therefore hope that the lessor agreed to complete the voyage as soon as possible in order to put the next voyage, to earn more freight. To this end, the lessor in the transport process will try to despatch, and without the provisions in the voyage charter party despatch lessor obligations. However, in the voyage charter party, the cargo handling operations by the lessee, the lessor can not control the loading and unloading time-consuming. To facilitate loading and unloading of the lessee to complete as soon as possible, voyage charter parties, without exception, there loading and unloading time and demurrage terms. If the lessee does not complete the loading and unloading in the loading and unloading time, the lessor shall pay the agreed demurrage charges to compensate for the loss of the lessor. In the liner, loading and unloading of goods from the carrier responsible for the general, liner shipping included handling fees, no loading and unloading time and the provisions of the shipper's obligation to pay demurrage, which, in general terms the bill of lading on the back time and demurrage charges no handling Terms and Conditions. Voyage charter is a contract of carriage of goods by sea, but the contract is different from the liner, which has the following characteristics: 1, voyage charter parties as lessor and lessee. Parties to the contract known as liner shipping carriers and shippers. Liner liner was set in the timetable, fixed route, open to all shippers, known as a common carrier; voyage charter contracts the shipowner only carrier signed a charter contract with the lessee of the goods offered, For timetable and route arrangements agreed upon by both parties, so called private carrier or specialized carrier. 2, the voyage charter must be in writing (Article 43 of China Maritime Law), in practice mostly based on standard form contracts, deletions or modifications to be made. Contract process, the owner and the lessee (owner) and their agents usually through the international charter market, broker by both parties set out in the market, contact. Parties bargaining position of complete equality, so Western countries, especially Britain and the U.S. have no charter, statutory constraints, development of maritime law is civil law provisions related to charter parties, also belong to non-mandatory terms or flexible terms, that is, Both parties may agree to exclude or modify the following apply. And in the liner, liner services to take advantage of the shipper must agree to the terms of the bill of lading, the parties unequal bargaining position, so the country advocating freedom of contract are also constrained by domestic law to force the bill of lading terms. 3, the lessor is responsible for operation of the ship and expenses. Employed by the shipowner through the master, crew share control of the ship, in addition to cargo handling charges may be otherwise agreed, the other ship operating costs such as fuel, port fees and the cost of maintaining the ship, including crew wages, food, ship repairs and maintenance maintenance, insurance, inspection fees, by the lessor burden. The lessee has the right to use the ship or space, even if the goods are not filled, the lessor has no right to the third shipment of goods. 4, the freight, the shipping lines of the carrier's tariff table developed by the tonnage of cargo multiplied by the rate or volume to calculate shipping costs. Charter party freight according to the agreement determined by market supply and demand determined by the parties consistent. The method of calculating shipping costs are calculated according to the agreement and the lump sum freight tonnage of the two, the former according to the agreed contract tonnage and freight rates per ton calculation. The latter only requires a total amount. Generally only when the lessee to lease the entire lump sum freight ship, called the whole cabin charter or charter freight. At this point, no matter how much the lessee shipping goods under the contract must pay the shipping amount. 5, the voyage charter contract provides for the term of cargo handling, loading and unloading time calculation method, and calculate the demurrage and despatch charges. Liner generally arranged by the carrier loading and unloading berths to meet the requirements of the liner, so most of the bill of lading is not working time and demurrage fees, severance pay terms of speed, usually only requires the shipper or the consignee according to the ship received or the speed of delivery or receipt of the goods as soon as possible. If the port congestion, the shipper may have to pay the port congestion surcharge. Currently, the world's most popular formats voyage charter party: "Unity grocery charter" (Uniform General Charter), a charter party code-named "Golden Health" (GENCON). This format developed by the BIMCO, and by 1922, 1976, 1994, three amendments. So far, international use is still more in 1976 format. Many provisions in this format, the more obvious to safeguard the interests of the lessor. It is applicable to a variety of routes and a variety of goods, voyage charter, the current most widely used in the world, China's import and export of aircraft leased multi-tenant this format. "Baltimore C-type" (Baltime Berth Charter Party Steamer, Form C). This format is widely used in North America, the entire ship grain transport, developed by the North American Grain Export Association and the BIMCO approved charter code-named "NORGRAIN". "The Australian Grain Charter Party" (Australian Grain Charter Party), a charter party code "AUSTRAL". "Oil tanker voyage charter" (Tanker Voyage Charter Party), this format by the United States Association of Ship Brokers and agents formulated in 1977, specifically for tanker voyage charter, the charter contract code "ASBATANKVOY". "Oil tanker voyage charter" (Tanker Voyage Charter Party), by the International Association of Independent Tanker Owners development, charter party code "INTERTANKVOY".

2013-02-15 02:04:47